Here you can find a list of our research publications arranged in order of work package and research domain. An alphabetical list of our publications is available here.
Many of our publications are available to read freely online thanks to the generous support of the Wellcome Trust.
Phase One: 2012–2015
WP 1: Phenomenology
The term ‘phenomenology’ refers to the systematic study of experience. A first step on the road to understanding voices is to establish the phenomenology of hearing voices. There are actually two questions here, first, what are the voices themselves like, and second, how does hearing voices change one’s being-in-the-world, i.e., how one experiences oneself and others? Establishing answers to these questions is a major aim of Hearing the Voice.
WP 1: Phenomenology - Selected publications
Alderson-Day, B. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Relations among questionnaire and experience sampling measures of inner speech: a smartphone app study. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 517.
Alderson-Day, B. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Inner speech: Development, cognitive functions, phenomenology, and neurobiology. Psychological Bulletin, 141(5), 931–965.
Alderson-Day, B., and Fernyhough, C. (2014). More than one voice: Investigating the phenomenological properties of inner speech requires a variety of methods. Commentary on Hurlburt, Heavey and Kelsey (2013), Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking. Consciousness and Cognition, 24, 113-114.
Alderson-Day, B., McCarthy-Jones, S., & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Hearing voices in the resting brain: A review of intrinsic functional connectivity research on auditory verbal hallucinations. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 55, 78–87.
Alderson-Day, B., McCarthy-Jones, S., Bedford, S., Collins, H., Dunne, H., Rooke, C., and Fernyhough, C. (2014) Shot through with voices: Dissociation mediates the relationship between varieties of inner speech and auditory hallucination proneness. Consciousness and Cognition, 27: 288–296.
Bentall, R.B. (2014) The search for elusive structure: A promiscuous realist case for researching specific psychotic experiences such as hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40 (Suppl 4): S198-S201.
Corstens, D., Longden, E., McCarthy-Jones, S., Waddingham, R., and Thomas, N. (2014). Emerging perspectives from the Hearing Voices Movement: implications for research and practice. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Davis, P., Meins, E., and Fernyhough, C. (2013) Individual differences in children’s private speech: The role of imaginary companions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 116 (3): 561-71.
Davis, P.E., Meins, E. & Fernyhough, C. (2014). Children with imaginary companions focus on mental characteristics when describing their real-life friends. Infant and Child Development, 23(6): 622–633.
Deamer, F. & Wilkinson, S. (2014). The speaker behind the voice: Therapeutic practice from the perspective of pragmatic theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 817, 1-5.
Fernyhough, C., and Waters, F. (2014) Special supplement introduction: Hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(Suppl 4): S195-S197.
Firth, L., Alderson-Day, B., Woods, N. & Fernyhough, C. (2015). Imaginary companions in childhood: Relations to imagination skills and autobiographical memory in adults. Creativity Research Journal, 27(4), 308–313.
Ford, J., Morris, S., Hoffman, R., Sommer, I., Waters, F., McCarthy-Jones, S., Thoma, R., Turner, J., Keedy, S., Badcock, J., and Cuthbert, B. (2014). Studying hallucinations within the NIMH RDoC Framework. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Jardri, R., Bartels-Velthuis, A., Debbané, M., Jenner, J., Kelleher, I., Dauvillier, Y., Plazzi, G., Demeulemeester, M., David, C., Rapoport, J., Dobbelaere, D., Escher, S., and Fernyhough, C. (2014). From phenomenology to a neurophysiological understanding of hallucinations in children and adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Johns, L., Kompus, K., Connell, M., Humpston, C., Lincoln, T., Longden, E., Preti, A., Alderson-Day, B., Badcock, J. C., Cella, M., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones, S., Peters, E., Raballo, A., Scott, J., Siddi, S., Sommer, I., and Larøi, F. (2014). Auditory verbal hallucinations in persons with and without a need for care. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Krueger, J., Bernini, M., and Wilkinson, S. (2014.) Introspection, isolation, and construction: Mentality as activity. Commentary on Hurlburt, Heavey & Kelsey (2013). Toward a phenomenology of inner speaking. Consciousness and Cognition 25:9-10.
Larøi, F., Luhrmann, T., Bell, V., Christian, W. A., Deshpande, S., Fernyhough, C., Jenkins, J., and Woods, A. (2014). Culture and hallucinations: Overview and future directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(Suppl 4): 213-220.
McCarthy-Jones, S., Krueger, J., Broome, M., and Fernyhough, C. (2013). Stop, look, listen: The need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. (7):1-9.
McCarthy-Jones, S., Thomas, N., Strauss, C., Dodgson, G., Jones, N., Woods, A., Brewin, C., Hayward, M., Stephane, M., Barton, J., Kingdon, D., and Sommer, I. (2014). Better than mermaids and stray dogs? Subtyping auditory verbal hallucinations and its implications for research and practice. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(Suppl 4): 275-284.
Moseley, P., and Wilkinson, S. (2014.) Inner speech is not so simple: Commentary on Cho and Wu (2013). Frontiers in Psychiatry 5:42.
Ratcliffe, M. & Wilkinson, S. (2015). Thought insertion clarified. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 22(11-12): 246-269.
Ratcliffe, M. & Wilkinson, S. (2016). How anxiety induces auditory verbal hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition, 39: 48-58.
Ratcliffe, M., Ruddell, M., and Smith, B. (2014) What is a sense of foreshortened future? A phenomenological study of trauma, trust and time. Frontiers in Psychology, 5.
Smailes, D., Moseley, P. and Wilkinson, S. (2015). A commentary on: Affective coding: the emotional dimension of agency. Frontiers. Volume 9, Article 142.
Sullivan, S., Bentall, R.B., Fernyhough, C., Pearson, R.M. & Zammit, S.(2013). Cognitive styles and psychotic experiences in a community sample. PLOS One. 8(11): e80055.
Thomas, N., Hayward, M., Peters, E., van der Gaag, M., Bentall, R., Jenner, J., Strauss, C., Sommer, I., Johns, L., Varese, F., García-Montes, J., Waters, F., Dodgson, G., and McCarthy-Jones, S. (2014). Psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations (voices): Current status and key directions for future research. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Waters, F., Woods, A. and Fernyhough, C. (2014) Report on the 2nd International Consortium on Hallucinations Research: Evolving directions and top ten ‘hot spots’ in hallucinations research. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Wilkinson, S. (2014) Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework. Consciousness and Cognition, 30: 142–155.
Wilkinson, S. (Online 2015). A mental files approach to delusional misidentification. The Review of Philosophy and Psychology.
Wilkinson, S. (2015). A review of The Predictive Mind by Jakob Hohwy. Analysis, 75(1), 169-172.
Wilkinson, S. (2014). Levels and kinds of explanation: lessons from neuropsychiatry. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 373.
Wilkinson, S. & Alderson-Day, B. (Online 2015). Voices and thoughts in psychosis: An introduction. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 1-12.
Wilkinson, S., and Bell, V. (2016). The representation of agents in auditory-verbal hallucinations. Mind and Language, 31(1): 104–126.
Woods, A. (2013). Rethinking patient testimony in the medical humanities: Schizophrenia Bulletin’s first person accounts. Journal of Literature and Science, 6(1): 38-54.
Woods, A., Jones, N., Alderson-Day, B., Callard, F., and Fernyhough, C. (2015). Experiences of hearing voices: Analysis of a novel phenomenological survey. Lancet Psychiatry, 2(7): 585.
Woods, A., Jones, N., Bernini, M., Callard, F., Alderson-Day, B., Badcock, J. C., Bell, V., Cook, C., Csordas, T., Humpston, C., Krueger, J., Larøi, F., McCarthy-Jones, S., Moseley, P., Powell, H., Raballo, A., Smailes, D., and Fernyhough, C. (2014). Interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations. Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Woods, A., Romme, M., McCarthy-Jones, S., Escher, S. and Dillon, J. (2013) Editorial. Special edition: Voices in a positive light. Psychosis 5(3): 213-215.
Monographs, Edited Collections and Journal Special Issues and Contributions to edited collections
Fernyhough, C., and McCarthy-Jones, S. (2013). Thinking aloud about mental voices. In F. Macpherson and D. Platchias (eds) Hallucination. Philosophy and psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 87-104.
Fernyhough, C., and Waters, F. (2014) (eds.). Hallucinations. Special supplement, Schizophrenia Bulletin.
Krueger, J. (2014). The phenomenology of person perception. In M. Bruhn and D. Wehrs (eds) Cognition, literature and history: New York: Routledge.
Ratcliffe, M. (2015) How is perceptual experience possible? The phenomenology of presence and the nature of hallucination. In Breyer, T. and Doyon, M. (Eds.) Normativity in perception: Phenomenological, analytic and psychopathological perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp 91-113.
Ratcliffe, M. (2014). Some Husserlian reflections on the contents of experience. In Haug, M. (Ed.) Philosophical methodology. The armchair or the laboratory? London: Routledge. 353-378.
Ratcliffe, M. (2015). Relating to the dead: Social cognition and the phenomenology of grief. In Moran, D. and Szanto, T. (Eds.) Phenomenology of sociality: Discovering the ‘We’. London: Routledge, 202-218.
WP 2: Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how alterations to the normal information processing mechanisms in the brain may give rise to the experience of hearing voices, and also to establish their biological underpinnings. Our work in this area aims to establish cognitive-neuroscientific paradigms for research into voice-hearing using neurostimulation and neuromodulation techniques, incorporating phenomenological insights from elsewhere in the project. We also aim to establish neuroimaging paradigms for cognitive neuroscientific studies of voice-hearing that are sensitive to phenomenology and the heterogeneity of the experience.
WP 2: Cognitive Neuroscience - Selected publications
Alderson-Day, B., Weis, S., McCarthy-Jones, S., Moseley, P., Smailes, D. & Fernyhough, C. (Online 2015). The brain’s conversation with itself: Neural substrates of dialogic inner speech. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience.
Callard, F. & Margulies, D.S. (2014). What we talk about when we talk about the default mode network. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8: 619, 1-5.
Callard, F., Smallwood, J., Golchert, J. & Margulies, D.S. (2013). The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 891.
Garrison, J.R., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones, S., Haggard, M., The Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank & Simons, J.S. (2015). Paracingulate sulcus morphology is associated with hallucinations in the human brain. Nature Communications, 6, 8956.
Hurlburt, R.T., Alderson-Day, B., Fernyhough, C., & Simone Kühn, S. (2015). What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner. Frontiers in Psychology. 6: 1535, 1-16.
Kühn, S., Fernyhough, C., Alderson-Day, B., and Hurlburt, R. T. (Online 2014). Inner experience in the scanner: Can high fidelity apprehensions of inner experience be integrated with fMRI?, Frontiers in Psychology 5:1393. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01393.
Moseley, P., Alderson-Day, B., Ellison, A., Jardri, R. & Fernyhough, C. (2016). Noninvasive brain stimulation and auditory verbal hallucinations: New techniques and future directions. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9:515, 1-12.
Mosely, P., Fernyhough, C., and Ellison, A. (2014). The role of the superior temporal lobe in auditory false perceptions: A transcranial direct current simulation study. Neuropsychologia, 62: 202-281.
Moseley, P., Smailes, D., Ellison, A. & Fernyhough, C. (2016). The effect of auditory verbal imagery on signal detection in hallucination-prone individuals. Cognition, 146, 206-216.
WP 3: Hermeneutics
What does it mean to hear voices? Hermeneutics (the theory and practice of interpretation) can help us to answer this question, through a systematic study of the varied meanings people give to voices. Our research in this area covers voice-hearers’ own interpretations of their experiences, the link between voice-hearing and spirituality or religious experience (e.g. ‘hearing the voice of God’), and the way in which voice-hearing has been interpreted and represented in literary and biographical records from the medieval to modern periods.
WP 3: Hermeneutics - Selected publications
Bernini, M. (2015). Crawling creating creatures: On Beckett’s liminal minds. The European Journal of English Studies, 19(1): 39-54.
Bernini, M. (2014). Supersizing narrative theory: On intention, material agency and extended mind-workers. In Special issue of Style (Cognitive Literary Study: Second generation approaches, Eds. Caracciolo, M. and Kukkonen, K.) 48(3), 349-366.
Cook, C. (2013). The prophet Samuel, hypnagogic hallucinations and the voice of God – Psychiatry and sacred texts.British Journal of Psychiatry 203(5): 380-380.
Cook, C. (2015). Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder. International Journal for Social Psychiatry, 61(4): 404-425.
Dein, S., and Cook, C. (2015) God put a thought into my mind: The charismatic Christian experience of receiving communications from God. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 18(2): 97-113.
Garratt, P. (2015). Voices and the imaginative ear. The Lancet, 386(10010): 2248–2249.
McCarthy-Jones, S., Waegeli, A. and Watkins, J. (2013) Spirituality and hearing voices: Considering the relation. Psychosis 5 (3): 247-258.
Powell, H. (2013). Following in the footsteps of Christ: Text and context in the Vita S. Mildrethae. Medium Ævum LXXXII (1): 23-42.
Saunders, C. (2015). Hearing medieval voices. The Lancet, 386(10009): 2136–2137.
Waugh, P. (2015). The novelist as voice-hearer. The Lancet, 386(10010):e54–e55.
Woods, A. (2015). Voices, identity and meaning-making. The Lancet, 386(10011): 2386–2387.
Woods, A. (2013). The voice-hearer. Journal of Mental Health 22 (3): 263-270.
Contributions to edited collections
Bernini, M. (2014). Gression, regression, and beyond: A cognitive reading of the unnamable. In Tucker, D., Nixon, M. and Van Hulle, D. (Eds.) Revisiting Molloy, Malone meurt / Malone Dies and L’Innommable / The Unnamable. Samuel Beckett Today/Aujourd’hui, (26) 193-209.
Brandsma, F., Larrington, C. and Saunders, C. (Eds) (2015). Emotions in Medieval Arthurian literature: Body, mind, voice (Arthurian studies). D.S.Brewer.
Powell, H. (2013). Pilgrimage, performance and miracle cures in the twelfth-century Miracula of St Aebbe. In Gemi-Iordanou, E., Gordon, S., Matthew, R., McInnes, E., Pettitt, R.(eds) Medicine, Healing and Performance. Oxford: Oxbow.
Saunders, C. (2015). Mind, body and effect in English Athurian romance. In Brandsma, Larrington & Saunders (eds.). Emotions in Medieval Arthurian Literature, 31-46. D.S.Brewer.
Waugh, P. (2012). “Did I not banish the soul?” Thinking otherwise, Woolf-wise. In Contradictory Woolf: Selected papers from the twenty-first annual international conference on Virginia Woolf. Ryan, Derek & Bolaki, Stella International Virgina Woolf Society, Clemson University Press, 23-42.
Waugh, P. (2012). Thinking in literature: Modernism and contemporary neuroscience. In James, D. (Ed.) The legacies of modernism: Historicising postwar and contemporary fiction. Cambridge University Press. 73-95.
Waugh, P. (2013). The naturalistic turn, the syndrome, and the rise of the neo-phenomenological novel. In Lustig, T.J. & Peacock, J. (Eds.) Diseases and disorders in contemporary fiction: The syndrome syndrome. Routledge. 17-35.
WP 4: Therapeutic Practice
The development of new and innovative therapeutic practice is one of the key aims of Hearing the Voice. Our work in this area lays down the foundations for the development, trial and evaluation of a package of therapeutic measures involving psycho-education about the phenomenology, causes, and development of voice-hearing experiences. For example, our project findings have informed the development of iPad technologies which can be used to enhance existing CBT and other strategies for coping with distressing voices.
WP 4: Therapeutic Practice
Callard, F. (2014). Psychiatric diagnosis: The indispensability of ambivalence. Journal of Medical Ethics, 40(8):526-30.
Callard, F., Bracken, P., David, A.S. & Sartorius, N. (2013). Has psychiatric diagnosis labelled rather than enabled patients? The BMJ, 347:f4312.
Moseley, P., Ellison, A., and Fernyhough, C. (2013). Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 37 (10): 2794-2805.
Smailes, D., Alderson-Day, B., Fernyhough, C., McCarthy-Jones,S. & Dodgson, G. (2015). Tailoring cognitive behavioural therapy to subtypes of voice-hearing. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 1933.
Contributions to edited collections
McCarthy-Jones, S., Thomas, N., Dodgson, G., Fernyhough, C., Brotherhood, E., Wilson, G., & Dudley, R. (2015). What have we learnt about the ability of cognitive behavioural therapy to help with voice-hearing? In Hayward, M., Strauss, C. & McCarthy-Jones, S. (Eds). Psychological approaches to understanding and treating auditory hallucinations: From theory to therapy, 78-99. London: Routledge.
WP 5: Methodology
We believe that understanding voice-hearing requires a unique interdisciplinary approach. For it is only by using humanities based approaches, in addition to scientific and clinical analysis, that one can capture the richness of the personal, philosophical and cultural meanings given to the experience of hearing voices, and guard against the development of reductionist accounts which try to understand voices solely in terms of brain processes. We are currently developing a transferable methodology for interdisciplinary research into human experience, through our project Working Knowledge and other research publications.
WP 5: Methodology - Selected publications
Bernini, M. and Woods, A. (2014). Interdisciplinarity as cognitive integration: Auditory verbal hallucinations as a case study. WIREs Cognitive Science 5(5): 603-612.
Fernyhough, C. (2015). Listening to the voices. The Lancet, 386(10009): 2124–2125.
Fernyhough, C. (2014). The art of medicine: Hearing the voice. The Lancet, 384, 1090-1091.
Fitzgerald, D. & Callard, F. (2014) Social science and neuroscience beyond interdisciplinarity: Experimental entanglements. Theory, Culture & Society, 32(1): 3-32.
Monographs and Contributions to edited collections
Callard, F. & Fitzgerald, D.(2015). Rethinking Interdisciplinarity across the social sciences and neurosciences. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke (UK).
Woods, A., and Fernyhough, C. (2014.) Hearing voices. In Holden, J., Kieffer, J., Newbigin, J. and Wright, S. (Eds.) Where does it hurt? The New World of Medical Humanities. London: Wellcome Trust, 84-85.
Other: Working Knowledge
Fernyhough, C., Woods, A., & Patton, V. (Eds.) (2015). Working Knowledge. Hearing the Voice, Durham University, UK.
Developed through sharing best practice, enumerating our successes and difficulties, and reflecting on our own interdisciplinary methods, Working Knowledge launched at the Wellcome Trust in February 2015. Housed on a dedicated website, the initiative consists of a collection of accessible and user friendly guides to the practical ins and outs of interdisciplinary research. Resources are aimed at anyone with an interest in interdisciplinarity and cross-sector collaborations and include:
Arts-Research Collaborations by Edinburgh International Book Festival
Collaborations Between Academics & Clinicians by Hearing the Voice
The Creative Facilitator by Hearing the Voice
Engaging Voice-Hearers by Hearing the Voice
The Experimental Design Hackathon by Hearing the Voice
External Communications & Social Media by Hearing the Voice
Interdisciplinary Authorship by Hearing the Voice
An Interdisciplinary Dialogue by Hearing the Voice
The Project Coordinator by Hearing the Voice.
Transferable Methodology by Life of Breath